This work presents a comprehensive investigation of the most significant renewable hydrogen production processes. Technical, economic and ecological studies are described for the processes of steam reforming of ethanol, natural gas and biogas; water electrolysis with energy from renewable sources (wind power, photovoltaic and hydroelectric), and hydrogen production using algae. Aimed at mechanical and chemical engineering graduate students and researchers involved in environmental sciences, sustainable energy and bioenergy research, this book introduces readers to the latest developments in the field and provides essential reference material for future research. The book first presents a comprehensive literature review of the processes studied. Subsequently, it provides a technical report on assessing the energetic efficiency for each hydrogen production process, as well as an economic study of the respective hydrogen production costs. Lastly, the ecological efficiency of each process is addressed. Over the past few decades, the UNESP's Group of Optimization of Energetic Systems, headed by Professor José Luz Silveira, has been pursuing research in the field of renewable energy generation. A major part of the group's research focuses on the production of hydrogen as a fuel and its important contribution to mitigating the environmental impacts caused by pollutant emissions.
This book presents a complete and coherent view of the subject of Common European Sales Law from a range of European perspectives. The book offers a comparison of the CESL with the CISG, as well as pre-existing instruments, including the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) and the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL). It analyses the process of enactment of CESL and its scope of application, covering areas such as the sale of goods, the supplying (licensing) of digital content, the supply of trade-related services, and consumer protection. It examines the design of the CESL bifurcating businesses into large and small-to-medium sized enterprises, and the providing of rules covering digital content and the supply of trade-related services. Lastly, it studies the field of application of the CESL combined with the already existing EU consumer protection laws, as well as nation-specific laws.?
Nonparametric statistics has probably become the leading methodology for researchers performing data analysis. It is nevertheless true that, whereas these methods have already proved highly effective in other applied areas of knowledge such as biostatistics or social sciences, nonparametric analyses in reliability currently form an interesting area of study that has not yet been fully explored.
Applied Nonparametric Statistics in Reliability is focused on the use of modern statistical methods for the estimation of dependability measures of reliability systems that operate under different conditions. The scope of the book includes:
smooth estimation of the reliability function and hazard rate of non-repairable systems;
study of stochastic processes for modelling the time evolution of systems when imperfect repairs are performed;
nonparametric analysis of discrete and continuous time semi-Markov processes;
isotonic regression analysis of the structure function of a reliability system, and
lifetime regression analysis.
Besides the explanation of the mathematical background, several numerical computations or simulations are presented as illustrative examples. The corresponding computer-based methods have been implemented using R and MATLAB®. A concrete modelling scheme is chosen for each practical situation and, in consequence, a nonparametric inference procedure is conducted.
Applied Nonparametric Statistics in Reliability will serve the practical needs of scientists (statisticians and engineers) working on applied reliability subjects.
Proceedings from the 2012 Fourth International Meeting on Gravitation and Cosmology, focusing on accelerated cosmic expansionThis volume provides both an update and a review of the state of alternative theories of gravity in connection with the accelerated expansion of the universe issue. Different theoretical proposals exist to explain the acceleration in the cosmic expansion, generating the dark energy issue and opening the possibility to theories of gravity alternative to general relativity. Related issues such as the dark matter problem are also surveyed in order to give the readers profound insight on the subject from different points of view. Comprised of short talks and plenary lectures given by leading experts in the field, some of them with brilliant and historic contributions, the book allows the reader to find readable and referenced surveys in topics like f(R) theories, the dark matter and dark energy issues, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) scenarios, f(T) theories, scalar-tensor theories derived from non-Riemannian geometries, emergent universes, the cosmological constant and other topics of current interest for younger and senior physicists and graduate students. These proceedings are from the Fourth International Meeting on Gravitation and Cosmology, held in Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, from 20 - 25 May, 2012, was sponsored by ICTP- Trieste, Italy and COECyTJAL-Universidad de Guadalajara, México. This event is a series of scientific meetings started in 2004 in Cuba, focusing on current and selected topics in the fields of gravitation and cosmology.
This book complies latest advancement in the field of environmental biotechnology. It focuses on topics that comprises industrial, environment and agricultural related issues to microbiological studies and exhibits correlation between biological world and dependence of humans on it. It is designed into three sections covering the role of environmental biotechnology in industry, environmental remediation, and agriculture. Ranging from micro-scale studies to macro, it covers up a huge domain of environmental biotechnology. Overall the book portrays the importance of modern biotechnology technologies in solving the problems in modern day life. The book is a ready reference for practicing students, researchers of biotechnology, environmental engineering, chemical engineering and other allied fields likewise.