This book provides information about the nontarget nature of selected soil enzymes which are implicated in soil fertility and health and the methods for their assay. It also shows how these soil enzymes are affected by two different pesticides, buprofezin and acephate, used both extensively and intensively in modern agriculture.
This book addresses issues arising from discharge of effluents from sugar industry on to surrounding land or into a water body such as physicochemical properties of soil, changes in the micro flora, quantification of soil enzyme activities as influenced by effluents. Disposal of effluents without neutralization has become general practice. These effluents are chemically heterogeneous, contain organic and inorganic pollutants including, sugar baggage, molasses, carbonates, bicarbonates. The impact of sugar industry effluents on microbial activities in terrestrial ecosystem is scanty. There is also significant interest in the study of soil enzymes because such effect reflects the potential capacity of a soil to perform certain biological transformation of soil fertility.
The term "total petroleum hydrocarbons" (TPHs) is used for any mixture of several hundred hydrocarbons found in crude oil, and they represent the sum of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons and extractable petroleum hydrocarbons. The petrol-range organics include hydrocarbons from C6 to C10, while diesel-range organics are C10-C28 hydrocarbons. Environmental pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons is one of the major global concerns, particularly in oil-yielding countries. In fact, there are more than five million potentially contaminated areas worldwide that represent, in general, a lost economic opportunity and a threat to the health and well-being of humans and the environment. Petroleum-contaminated sites constitute almost one-third of the total sites polluted with chemicals around the globe. The land contamination caused by industrialization was recognized as early as the 1960s, but less than a tenth of potentially contaminated lands have been remediated due to the nature of the contamination, cost, technical impracticability, and insufficient land legislation and enforcement. This book is the first single source that provides comprehensive information on the different aspects of TPHs, such as sources and range of products, methods of analysis, fate and bioavailability, ecological implications including impact on human health, potential approaches for bioremediation such as risk-based remediation, and regulatory assessment procedures for TPH-contaminated sites. As such, it is a valuable resource for researchers, graduate students, technicians in the oil industry and remediation practitioners, as well as policy makers.
This book complies latest advancement in the field of environmental biotechnology. It focuses on topics that comprises industrial, environment and agricultural related issues to microbiological studies and exhibits correlation between biological world and dependence of humans on it. It is designed into three sections covering the role of environmental biotechnology in industry, environmental remediation, and agriculture. Ranging from micro-scale studies to macro, it covers up a huge domain of environmental biotechnology. Overall the book portrays the importance of modern biotechnology technologies in solving the problems in modern day life. The book is a ready reference for practicing students, researchers of biotechnology, environmental engineering, chemical engineering and other allied fields likewise.
Combined fields of Microbiology and Nanotechnology have been most successful in providing novel solutions for protecting the health of humans and environment. This book covers the implications of nano-strategies to combat bacterial pathogens, applications of nanotechniques in microbiology, and innovative advances in the area of medical microbiology. Contents are divided into three sections -- Nanoscience in controlling bacterial pathogens, Nanoscience in Microbiology, Medical Microbiology. This volume is going to provide timely information about the technological advances of Nanoscience in the domain of Microbiology, with a special emphasis on Pathobiology. The book is a useful read for students and researchers in microbiology, nanotechnology and medical microbiology.